The construction and use of optical fiber from a central point directly to individual buildings such as residences, apartment buildings, and companies to provide high-speed internet access is known as fiber to the home (FTTH).
FTTH provides up to 100 megabits per second connection speeds (Mbps). These connections are 20 to 100 times faster than a regular cable modem or DSL connection. Because it necessitates the installation of new cable sets across existing optical fibre cables to individual consumers, FTTH on a broad scale would be expensive.
The term “fibre to the home” is one iteration of the “FTTx” category, which refers to any broadband network design that links optical fibre directly to a specific termination point. Fiber to the Premises (FTTP), Fiber to the Building (FTTB), and Fiber to the Curb are some of the other variations available (FTTC).
Residents get better internet speed and more bandwidth with FTTH. They can stream higher-quality material and access the internet from multiple devices at the same time. Also, people can utilise a certain broadband connection for both internet and television.
For network designers, FTTH is interesting because the core fibre technology is “cost effective,” – this means it will be able to meet broadband needs in the future. Fiber optic cables offer an almost limitless capacity.
Let’s have a look at the Passive Method!!!
What is FTTH (Fiber To The Home)?
- FTTH meaning Fiber to the Home, or FTTH for short, is a technology that employs optical fibre to connect a central location to a Home/residence.
- Each subscriber is linked to an optical fibre in FTTH, which is the ultimate fibre access solution.
- The passive approach is used in the present bulk FTTH deployment.
History of FTTH
Dr. Peter Schultz, Dr. Donald Keck, and Dr. Robert Maurer started experimenting with silica fiber, a clear glass substance, about 50 years ago. They created the world’s first optical wire, which could transfer data 65,000 times quicker than copper connections.
General Telephone and Electronics installed the very first optical network in Southern California just under a century ago. In Chicago, Bell also constructed a fiber-based telecommunications network.
Fiber’s benefits were clear from the start. Installing fibre technology, however, was too expensive at the time to justify sending it via communications networks’ last mile. Fiber’s unlimited bandwidth was also unnecessary for customers. Therefore, developers created fiber-to-the-curb (FTTC) networks and used copper cable to connect homes to phone and internet service.
After 20 years, fibre supported 80% of all long-distance data transmission around the world. The technology is the main strategy for offering high-speed communication as a result of technological improvements. Fiber networks are also significantly more cost effective to construct because of reductions in material and installation costs.
FTTH network developers can easily justify the initial cost required to establish FTTH networks when combined with expanding internet connectivity demands. With the growth of the Internet , Objects and smart homes, this is much more essential now to connect fibers directly to residences.
How does FTTH work?
The fact that FTTH brings optical fiber directly to buildings has always been its unique feature. The majority, if not all, of the latest telecommunications are carried out via optical fiber. To achieve higher performance, optical fiber delivers data using light signals.
FTTH Access Networks and Components:
FTTH is a type of fiber-optic communication transport that serves each residence . The fiber runs from the customer’s workspace to the head office. In FTTH networks, there are two main systems: AON (active optical network) and PON (passive optical network) (passive optical network).
Active Optical Network:
Each user has his own dedicated fibre optic connection ended on an optical splitter in the AON arrangement, which is a point-to-point structure (PTP).
An electrical switching device, just like a router or a switch integrator, are used in an active optical system to manage signal distribution and transport data to the suitable areas. An AON system is shown in the diagram below.
Passive Optical Network:
As the term suggests, a passive optical network highly depends on fiber and passive components such as optical splitters, instead of active components such as amplifiers, repeaters, or shaping circuits.
It’s a point-to-multipoint (PMP) network setup. A passive optical network, in other terms, uses optical fiber cables for sections of the network.A simple fiber from a central office optical line terminal (OLT) connects to optical network terminals (ONTs) or optical network units (ONUs) at premises in a passive optical system. A PON system is shown in the figure below.
What is the process of bringing fibre to the house (FTTH)?
- The use of optical fibre allows FTTH broadband to connect directly to the user’s home. Optical fibre transports data between servers to offer improved connection and user experience.
- FTTH is a type of broadband that is specifically designed to improve performance. Fiber optic cables flow from a central office to an FDH (fibre disruption hub), then to a NAP (network access point), and lastly to a terminal that functions as a junction box in the user’s residence.
- In the United States, almost 3 million people have direct fibre optic connections, compared to over 10 million in Japan and around 15 million globally.
- At a comparable price, FTTH provides greater bandwidth and flexibility than other options.
- FTTH is the only technology that can consistently and affordably supply enough bandwidth to fulfil the expectations of the next decade’s consumers.
- FTTH is now inexpensive, which is why thousands of firms across the world are rushing to deploy it in thousands of locations, based on hundreds of different business cases.
Benefits of using FTTH
The main benefit of FTTH is increased network performance, specifically higher speeds over a long distance, which the older method of using coaxial cables, twisted pair conductors and DSL cannot reach. Some benefits that come with this include:
- Improved performance for high-definition video streaming on applications like YouTube and Roku.
- Allows for multiple upgrades without having to replace the fiber, leading some to call FTTH “future proof.” The infrastructure surrounding the fiber can be updated without having to update the fiber itself.
- Higher speeds over longer distances than previous technologies.
- Better than other fiber configurations because fiber connects directly to residences and can complete remaining network segments with Ethernet or coaxial cable.
The Evolution of FTTH
FTTH has grown since the 1980s to accommodate the growing network demands of the modern world. Many fiber cables implemented in the 1980s are still in use today, which is a testament to their flexibility over time. Since the 1980s, fiber technology has become easier to install and cheaper than it was. Today, usage of FTTH and fiber optics continues to increase.